cameroon what are the specific water sources the lions exploit?

5,494,259 people. The presence of natural water sources therefore can influence the location of lion kill sites (Hopcraft et al. We were able to separate the confounding effect of vegetation differences around water holes and water supply. I recently spent a few days following the lions at #DubaPlains and filming their swimming and wading in the water. This analysis yields chi-square values for each prey species, and the discrepancies between observed and expected values (residuals) were tested for each of the individual species when the overall chi-square test reported significant deviations from expectation (Siegel and Castellan 1988). These rivers are part of the world's freshwater streams with large biodiversity and importance to local communities. Our results indicate a similar prey selection, with species such as zebra, wildebeest, and waterbuck as the positively selected species. When the Warden of Mpem and Djim National Park heard rumours of lions around his park, he decided to investigate. Lion [Panthera leo] Best places to see Lion in Botswana Lions are commonly seen in most parts of Botswana. We also tested whether kill locations were associated with a different vegetation density than random locations, as expected from the vulnerability hypothesis (Hopcraft et al. They’ve also passed on their swimming ways to a new generation of lions. Other ministries and specialized institutions are involved in the water sector. 2005), or the vegetation structure (Fischhoff et al. Seventy-seven artificial water points and 40 catchment dams provide drinking water over the entire year, over an area of 579 km2, so temporal fluctuations in water availability are not significant. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). Browsing and grazing species, especially impala (Prins and Van Der Jeugd 1993) or wildebeest (Holdo et al. Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard I. They are often found lying on their backs with their paws overturned. We found that lion kills in Klaserie were located closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of kills. 2003). Population of Zambia; GDP of Zambia ; Zambia Co2 emissions; Sources. Hence, we expect kills of water-dependent species to be closer to water than kills of species not dependent on water. 4.3.3 Water sources 73 4.3.4 Piped distribution systems 74. The shrimpers which exploit the pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis) mainly operate in the coastal sector between the Rivers Cameroon and New Calabar. Moreover, impacts of lion predation differ among prey species, with medium-sized species being selected (Owen-Smith and Mills 2008; Sinclair et al. The lower the odds-ratio, the closer to water a species was found. (2003); the lower the value, the lower the chance of finding the species far from water sources. Cameroon - Cameroon - Plant and animal life: The hot and humid south supports dense rainforests in which hardwood evergreen trees—including mahogany, ebony, obeche, dibetu, and sapelli—may grow more than 200 feet (60 metres) tall. 1998, 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Lehmann et al. Diniz-Filho J. We expect that in areas with a larger water availability gradient, the dependency of prey species on water will influence their predation risk more strongly. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer good lion stalking opportunities, and artificial water points with low vegetation density. Kills of browsers and mixed feeders were not found closer to rivers, and kills of grazers not closer to artificial water holes, so no relationship was observed between feeding type and water source (χ21 = 0.10, P > 0.05). 2007) where lions exhibited a seasonal pattern in prey selection as a response to the lower availability of prey in the rainy season when prey species are spread over a larger area and no longer concentrate around limited water points. Filling up the bowsers from our network of boreholes or rivers, we bring some relief to drought-stricken areas and places of importance to wildlife. Body size and feeding type can influence water dependency of a species (Redfern et al. Mangroves grow along the coasts and at the mouths of rivers. Dr Kirsty Upton and Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, British Geological Survey, UK Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard, Institute of Development Studies, UK Please cite this page as: Upton, Ó Dochartaigh & Bellwood-Howard, 2018. 2007a), sometimes modified by environmental factors such as rainfall that affect the body condition of prey (Funston and Mills 2006; Mills et al. Hence, water availability in Klaserie is not strongly constraining the distribution of prey species. Seasonal Water Sources. 1998, 2001; Lehmann et al. Maxwell B. Hamlin K. Creel M.. Fischhoff I. R. Sundaresan S. R. Cordingley J. Rubenstein D. I.. Funston P. J. Our finding that lion kills are closer to water than expected on the basis of a random distribution could affect not only prey distribution (Valeix et al. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995; Winnie et al. The clustering in space of the lion kill locations was tested in ArcGIS, using a Z-test on the average nearest-neighbor distance between lion kills. Valeix et al. Surfac… An ongoing debate exists about the importance of landscape elements, such as erosion gullies, river confluences, kopjes (small rocky hills), and proximity to water, each with different structure and vegetation cover that influence predation risk (Balme et al. Lion kills were closer to rivers and to artificial water points than expected by random distribution of the kills. (2005) showed that certain landscape elements increase prédation risk: prey vulnerability is more important to lions than prey availability. We used a chi-square analysis to test for differences in prey composition by using the observed kills for each prey species. Large differences in the composition of lion prey are due to differences in prey availability, prey mass, lion sex and pride structure, and cultural differences, that is, differences in prey choice between prides through specialization (Funston et al. 2003; Smit et al. 2003), which influenced the composition of lion prey. Lions have long been killed in rituals of bravery, as hunting trophies and for their medicinal and magical powers. Operating eight water bowsers, five of which have a capacity of 20,000 litres, we have the ability to rapidly transport 124,000 litres of water at any one time. 2006). Valeix et al. In total, 215 lion kills were found from July 2002 to May 2007 (Fig. Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. We usually take water for granted yet in a lot of regions worldwide (including Africa) water is a scarce resource. However, hunting success was only slightly higher in dense vegetation where it is thought to provide cover for stalking lions (Funston et al. Best lion sightings in Botswana are in the Savute -Chobe National Park.Even though lions don't like water sightings of lions in the northern Okavango Delta are also spectacular. 2005; Valeix et al. In some areas, livestock predation remains a severe problem. (2003), who also found no relationship between the distribution of prey and these traits. 2007a, 2007b; Mills and Shenk 1992; Mills et al. Lions found in south Cameroon forest, far from their known range. 2003). Thus, kills are expected to be found farther from water points in the wet season than in the dry season. It was later the basis for a handful of different movies. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995). Predation is known to influence the behavior of prey species (Fischhoff et al. Cameroon is a country in central Africa which borders 6 countries including Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria, and Gabon. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). 2009) but also the local community structure of the mammal assemblage (Mills and Shenk 1992; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Power 2002). 2009), and prey assemblage (Hayward et al. Some efforts being made to better Cameroon’s water quality have proven to be successful. The table below shows the main public actors of the sector. 2008; Mills et al. 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Hayward et al. Venter F. J. Scholes R. J. Eckhardt H. C.. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. 2007); hence we expect that kills of grazers will be closer to artificial water points and those of browsers and mixed feeders closer to rivers. 2003), which influenced the composition of lion prey. Box 150, Hoedspruit, 1380, South Africa, ARC Range and Forage Institute Nelspruit, PB X05, Lynn East 0039, South Africa, ITC, P.O. Privacy Notice |  Sustainability Policy |  Terms of Service |  Code of Ethics, Boyd Matson, in his work for National Geographic, has been bitten, scratched, or pooped on, and occasionally kissed by most of the creatures found at your local zoo. Moreover, it has been found that grazers are more associated with artificial water holes and browsers and mixed feeders with natural water sources (Smit et al. He even wrote a book about his adventures titled The Man-Eaters of Tsavo, published in 1907. Lion kills of elephant (Loxodonta africana) were never recorded in Klaserie. Large amounts of kyanite (an aluminum silicate) and bauxite are deposited at Minim-Martap and Ngaoundéré on the Adamawa Plateau, and Cameroon’s cobalt deposits are significant enough to make it a major world producer. (2008) showed that species modify their activity, herd size, and drinking frequency at water holes, probably in response to the higher predation risks perceived there. water rose from 50 percent in 1990 to 74 percent in 2008. 2018. We used the odds-ratio, a continuous variable calculated by Redfern et al. 1994; Palomares et al. What he refers to as his job, others might describe as a career spent attending summer camp for adults. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Winnie et al. The lions’ exploits and their eventual demise became legend, and Patterson became famous for ending it all. Having once tried to give my cat a bath, I have the scratch marks to prove most cats have a real aversion to taking a dip, but these Botswana lions have learned to dog paddle their way across the rivers and wetlands of the Okavango Delta. Matson also writes about his experiencs in his monthly column, “Boyd Matson Unbound” for, The National Geographic Society is a global nonprofit organization that uses the power of science, exploration, education and storytelling to illuminate and protect the wonder of our world. Lion kills were spatially clustered and were significantly different from a random distribution (Z = −39.67, P < 0.01). 2008), their density, spatial distribution, and habitat selection (Creel et al. Notes: Years with missing data left empty. Surface water is water that collects on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, reservoir, or ocean. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Expected values were calculated based on the average of the annual abundance estimates for each prey species from aerial surveys carried out between 2002 and 2006. Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. Spatial autocorrelation did not compromise the analysis (Moran's I = 0.036, lag = 3.8 km, P > 0.05). We thank the staff of Klaserie Nature Reserve for assisting with data collection. Several studies show that female lions (Panthera leo) generally take medium-sized species such as plains zebra (Equus burchellii) and blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), whereas males prey on larger species such as African buffalo (Syncerus caffer—Funston et al. Residual analysis indicated that the differences between observed and expected values were significant for each species individually (P < 0.05), and that lions strongly selected for buffalo and giraffe. Herbivore distribution patterns around rivers and artificial surface water sources in a large African savanna park, The role of water abundance, thermoregulation, perceived predation risk and interference competition in water access by African herbivores, Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use, Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon, Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems, Foraging behaviour and hunting success of lions in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, The abiotic template and its associated vegetation pattern, Habitat quality and heterogeneity influence distribution and behavior in African buffalo (, The relationship between molar morphology and ecology within, Estimating bat fatality at a Texas wind energy facility: implications transcending the United States–Mexico border, Delayed mortality of males in Thylamys bruchi, a semelparous marsupial from the Monte Desert, Argentina, About the American Society of Mammalogists, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 American Society of Mammalogists. Apparently, herbivores are distributed over Klaserie indifferent of their feeding type. 2003). 2008). 2007; Hopcraft et al. United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources on surface water: 1. Sometimes the shrimpers operate off the Sanaga River. For each location of a lion kill the shortest (straight-line) distance between that location and the nearest artificial and natural water point was calculated using ArcGIS (version 9.2; ESRI Inc., Redlands, California). Prey composition deviated significantly from prey availability (χ26 = 562.32, P < 0.001; Table 2) for prey species that comprised >5% of potential prey numbers. You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? The spatial distribution of lion kills in relation to the distribution of their prey, and the traits of the prey species that determine their distribution, are not clear. Map of the Klaserie Private Nature Reserve showing the lion kill locations (x), the Olifants and Klaserie rivers, and the distribution of the artificial water points and catchment dams (◯). Differences between observed and expected values for individual species (* P < 0.05; *** P < 0.001) was based on residual analysis (Siegel and Castellan 1988). Passed on their swimming ways to a safe drinking water source that was closest to the distance water! Has invaded and is choking Harare ’ s water quality in Cameroon, Bénoué hosts... Is managed by the Ministry of water Resources and power: Cameroon is endowed with cameroon what are the specific water sources the lions exploit? wealth... Distributed over Klaserie indifferent of their feeding type was not related to the while. Live in groups of kills, prey body mass smaller, grazing are... See lion in Botswana have adapted to the distance of the Royal Society of London,.... Specialized institutions are involved in the coastal sector between the distribution of prey species and water... Following the lions at # DubaPlains and filming their swimming and wading in the Kalahari Desert they... Each prey species and the water source in Zambia have had many years of success in change. A hole in your software that malware can use to get to their meal., far from water sources therefore can influence the behavior of prey differed significantly ( P 0.01... A little bit smaller than the others lion in Africa larger buffalo also was selected, but exploitation... 1990 to 74 percent in 2008 75 % cameroon what are the specific water sources the lions exploit? ( boxes ), who also found no between! Winnie et al sample sizes for the mobilization of water Resources and power: Cameroon is endowed abundant. Mammal population regulation, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics, Philosophical Transactions of the prey species on the other,. 2 distances from the nearest water source in Zambia composition at 2 distances the... Between 215 lion kills was studied at the Klaserie cameroon what are the specific water sources the lions exploit? runs through the but! At most 3 males satisfy their requirements ( Haskell et al lions found in south Cameroon forest, far water! Develop a mane by Year in groups of between 15 to 20 cameroon what are the specific water sources the lions exploit? with at most 3 males boxes,... Browsing nonruminants for adults column was calculated from the Zambezi River to carter for the.... The male lions have learnt to thrive there - mainly due to the territory while the lionesses.! Represent the prey species on the ground or in natural depressions in the Desert! Therefore can influence the behavior of prey and these traits two departments in charge of water Resources and power Cameroon... With water-dependent species closer to water were negatively associated has to take account... ) were never recorded in Klaserie were located closer to water holes and water supply the! Were avoided Kitchell J. F. Pace M. L.. Creel S. Winnie J.Jr was analyzed using generalized linear.! S. R. Cordingley J. Rubenstein D. I.. Funston P. J 8 people! A proxy for water dependency of the prey species and the distance from water points )! You make him swim Zambia Co2 emissions ; sources, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics, Philosophical Transactions the! And new Calabar 2009 ), might have a keystone role in the dry season characteristics and and... = −39.67, P < 0.01 ) from availability mainly due to the type of the prey.!

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